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English also has a rich set of auxiliary verbs, such as have and do, expressing the categories of mood and aspect. Cambridge History of the English Language. European Commission (June 2012). "List of languages by total number of speakers, Ethnologue 2019". Red, tall, all ) and specifiers such as determiners (e.g. English Accents and Dialects (3rd.). For the expression of mood, English uses a number of modal auxiliaries, such as can, may, will, shall and the past tense forms could, might, would, should. Many varieties also use a near future constructed with the phrasal verb be going. Basic constituent order English word order has moved from the Germanic verb-second (V2) word order to being almost exclusively subjectverbobject (SVO). Auxiliary verbs mark constructions such as questions, negative polarity, the passive voice and progressive aspect. This influence of English has led to concerns about language death, and to claims of linguistic imperialism, and has provoked resistance to the spread of English; however the number of speakers continues to increase because many people around the world think that English provides them. In Aarts, Bas; McMahon, April (eds.). The standard English of the inner-circle countries is often taken as a norm for use of English in the outer-circle countries. Clusters of obstruents always agree invoicing, and clusters of sibilants and of plosives with the same point of articulation are prohibited.

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Historically the -s possessive has been used for animate nouns, whereas the of possessive has been reserved for inanimate nouns. References Oxford Learner's Dictionary 2015, Entry: English Pronunciation. Norse influence was strongest in the north-eastern varieties of Old English spoken in the Danelaw area around York, which was the centre of Norse colonisation; today these features are still particularly present in Scots and Northern English. English personal pronouns Person Subjective case Objective case Dependent possessive Independent possessive Reflexive 1st. Marsh, David (26 November 2010). The distinctions between English as a first language, as a second language, and as a foreign language are often debatable and may change in particular countries over time. The influence of English comes from such factors as opinion leaders in other countries knowing the English language, the role of English as a world lingua franca, and the large number of books and films that are translated from English into other languages. Most people learn English for practical rather than ideological reasons. Phonology Main article: English phonology The phonetics and phonology of the English language differ from one dialect to another, usually without interfering with mutual communication. English is classified as an Anglo-Frisian language because Frisian and English share other features, such as the palatalisation of consonants that were velar consonants in Proto-Germanic (see Phonological history of Old English  Palatalization ). Other changes affecting the phonology of local varieties are processes such as yod -dropping, yod -coalescence, and reduction of consonant clusters.

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features such as modal verbs and word order as resources for conveying meaning. 105 Use of English is growing country-by-country internally and for international communication. Within the United Kingdom, the Received Pronunciation (RP an educated dialect of South East England, is traditionally used as the broadcast standard and is considered the most prestigious of the British dialects. Varieties of English learned by non-native speakers born to English-speaking parents may be influenced, especially in their grammar, by the other languages spoken by those learners. A few short inscriptions from the early period of Old English were written using a runic script. One way of doing this is through a passive construction, the girl was stung by the bee. In spite of the idiomatic meaning, some grammarians, including Huddleston Pullum (2002 :274 do not consider this type of construction to form a syntactic constituent and hence refrain from using the term "phrasal verb". English Phonology: An Introduction. Germanic languages, particularly, norse (a, north Germanic language and to a greater extent.


Linguist David Crystal estimates that non-native speakers now outnumber native speakers by a ratio of 3. "English in East Africa". In the 1611 King James Version of the Bible, written in Early Modern English, Matthew 8:20 says: The Foxes haue holes and the birds of the ayre haue nests This exemplifies the loss of case and its effects on sentence structure (replacement with Subject-Verb-Object word. The purpose of punctuation is to mark meaningful grammatical relationships in sentences to aid readers in understanding a text and to indicate features important for reading a text aloud. Prepositions have a wide range of uses in English. Lay summary (4 February 2015). Gordon, Elizabeth; Campbell, Lyle; Hay, Jennifer; Maclagan, Margaret; Sudbury, Angela; Trudgill, Peter (2004). Old English evolved into Middle English, which in turn evolved into Modern English. 96 Spoken English, for example English used in broadcasting, generally follows national pronunciation standards that are also established by custom rather than by regulation. In 1828, Noah Webster published the American Dictionary of the English language to try to establish a norm for speaking and writing American English that was independent of the British standard. As a result, some " long vowels " are often indicated by combinations of letters (like the oa in boat, the ow in how, and the ay in stay or the historically based silent e (as in note and cake ). General American and Received Pronunciation vary in their pronunciation of historical /r/ after a vowel at the end of a syllable (in the syllable coda ). Many other worldwide international organisations, including the International Olympic Committee, specify English as a working language or official language of the organisation. Nonetheless, there is an advantage for learners of English reading in learning the specific sound-symbol regularities that occur in the standard English spellings of commonly used words. Most standard varieties are affected by the Great Vowel Shift, which changed the pronunciation of long vowels, but a few dialects have slightly different results. Many regional international organisations such as the European Free Trade Association, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (asean and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (apec) set English as their organisation's sole working language even though most members are not countries with a majority of native English speakers. They them their theirs themselves Pronouns are used to refer to entities deictically or anaphorically. 148 Closing diphthongs RP GA Word e b ay o r oa d a cr y a c ow b oy Centering diphthongs RP GA word p eer e p air p oor In RP, vowel length is phonemic; long vowels are marked with. Adjectives Adjectives modify a noun by providing additional information about their referents. By the 6th century, a Latin alphabet was adopted, written with half-uncial letterforms. Globish uses a relatively small subset of English vocabulary (about 1500 words with highest use in international business English) in combination with the standard English grammar. 52 In the 20th century the growing economic and cultural influence of the United States and its status as a superpower following the Second World War has, along with worldwide broadcasting in English by the BBC 55 and other broadcasters, caused the language to spread. Discourse level syntax While English is a subject-prominent language, at the discourse level it tends to use a topic-comment structure, where the known information (topic) precedes the new information (comment). The earliest forms of English, a group of West Germanic (. Pin pronounced pn rather than as pn as in most other varieties while r is often pronounced as a flap instead of as the more common fricative. (See Dialects, accents, and varieties, below.) The phonetic symbols used below are from the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). Retrieved 6 February 2015.




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Future First person I will run Second person You will run Third person John will run Further aspectual distinctions are encoded by the use of auxiliary verbs, primarily have and be, which encode the contrast between a perfect and non-perfect past tense ( I have. Prepositions Prepositional phrases (PP) are phrases composed of a preposition and one or more nouns,.g. The major native dialects of English are often divided by linguists into the two extremely general categories of British English (BrE) and North American English (NAE). There is also variability within RP, particularly along class lines between Upper and Middle-class RP speakers and between native RP speakers and speakers who adopt RP later in life. One of the most productive processes in English is conversion, using a word with a different grammatical role, for example using a noun as a verb or a verb as a noun. The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Baker, Colin (August 1998).

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